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Posts Tagged ‘Preventive and social medicine MCQs’

Preventive & Social Medicine

Posted by Dr KAMAL DEEP on June 11, 2011

Epidemic typhus is transmitted by a) Flea b) Mite c) Tick d) Louse

Hard tick transmits
a) oroyo fever b) Oriental sore c) Leishmaniasis d) Tick typhus

Which one of the following is transmitted by Soft tick ? UPSC — 2006
a) Tick typhus b) Tularaemia c) Relapsing fever d) Colorado tick fever

The diseases transmitted by various insects are

Ä     Anopheles mosquito

o       Malaria

o       Filaria (not in India)

Ä     Culex mosquito

o       Bancroftian Filariasis

o       Japanese Encephalitis

o       West Nile fever

o       Viral Arthritis (epidemic / polyarthritis)

Ä     Aedes mosquito

o       Yellow fever (not in India)

o       Dengue

o       Dengue Haemorrhagic fever

o       Chikungunya fever

o       Chikungunya haemorrhagic fever

o       Rift Valley fever

o       Filaria (not in India)

Ä     Mansonoides mosquito

o       Malayan (Brugian) filariasis

o       Chikungunya fever

Ä     Housefly

o       Typhoid and paratyphoid fever

o       Diarrhoea

o       Dysentry

o       Cholera

o       Gastro-enteritis

o       Amoebiasis

o       Helminthic infestations

o       Poliomyelitis

o       Conjucntivitis

o       Trachoma

o       Anthrax

o       Yaws

Ä     Sandfly

o       Kala-azar

o       Oriental Sore

o       Sandfly fever

o       Oraya Fever

Ä     Tsetse Fly

o       Sleeping Sickness

Ä     Louse

o       Epidemic Typhus

o       Relapsing Fever

o       Trench Fever

o       Pediculosis

Ä     Rat Flea

o       Bubonic Plague

o       Endemic Typhus

o       Chiggerosis

o       Hymenolepis diminuta

Ä     Black Fly

o       Onchocerciasis

Ä     Reduvid Bug

o       Chagas Disease

Ä     Hard Tick

o       Tick Typhus

o       Viral Encephalitis

o       Viral Fevers

o       Viral Hemorrhagic fevers (eg KFD)

o       Tularemia

o       Tick Paralysis

o       Human Babesiosis

Ä     Soft Tick

o       Q Fever

o       Relapsing Fever

Ä     Trombiculid Mite

o       Scrub Typhus

o       Rickettsial Pox

Ä     Itch-mite

o       Scabies

Ä     Cyclops

o       Guinea Worm

o       Fish Tape worm

Ä     Cockroaches

o       Enteric Pathogens

About Delphi method

a. Formation of a team to undertake and monitor a Delphi on a given subject.

b. Selection of one or more panels to participate in the exercise. Customarily, the panelists are experts in the area to be investigated.

c. Development of the first round Delphi questionnaire

d. All are true

Answer

d. All are true

The Delphi method is a systematic interactive forecasting method for obtaining forecasts from a panel of independent experts. The carefully selected experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments. Thus, participants are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of the group. It is believed that during this process the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the “correct” answer. Finally, the process is stopped after a pre-defined stop criterion (e.g. number of rounds, achievement of consensus, stability of results) and the mean or median scores of the final rounds determine the results.

Delphi is based on well-researched principles and provides forecasts that are more accurate than those from unstructured groups. The technique can be adapted for use in face-to-face meetings, and is then called mini-Delphi or Estimate-Talk-Estimate (ETE). Delphi has been widely used for business forecasting and has certain advantages over another structured forecasting approach: prediction markets.

Fowles (1978) describes the following ten steps for the Delphi method:

Formation of a team to undertake and monitor a Delphi on a given subject.

Selection of one or more panels to participate in the exercise. Customarily, the panelists are experts in the area to be investigated.

Development of the first round Delphi questionnaire

Testing the questionnaire for proper wording (e.g., ambiguities, vagueness)

Transmission of the first questionnaires to the panelists

Analysis of the first round responses

Preparation of the second round questionnaires (and possible testing)

Transmission of the second round questionnaires to the panelists

Analysis of the second round responses (Steps 7 to 9 are reiterated as long as desired or necessary to achieve stability in the results.)

Preparation of a report by the analysis team to present the conclusions of the exercise

The most important issue in this process is the understanding of the aim of the Delphi exercise by all participants. Otherwise the panelists may answer inappropriately or become frustrated and lose interest. The respondents to the questionnaire should be well informed in the appropriate area but the literature suggest that a high degree of expertise is not necessary. The minimum number of participants to ensure a good group performance is somewhat dependent on the study design. Experiments by Brockhoff suggest that under ideal circumstances, groups as small as four can perform well.

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